online mag  /  print bookazine

A crop of knowledge

The Flax Weaving Museum at Krengerup Manor is operated by volunteers.
In 1995, the grassroots association behind the initiative opened this working factory museum, exhibition space, school service, café and shop

July 2024

 

From bookazine 6. Grab your copy here

Here you can subscribe for  automatically delivery twice per year in March and September

Jacquard weaving is a technique based on punched cards and was invented by the Frenchman J. M. Jacquard in 1804.

The Flax Weaving Museum at Krengerup Manor is operated by volunteers. In 1995, the grassroots association behind the initiative opened this working factory museum, exhibition space, school service, café and shop.

The museum is based on machines and tools from the last Danish linen weaving mill, Tommerup Hørvæveri on the island of Funen. The mill closed in 1969.

The museum grows a small amount of flax for use in courses held to demonstrate and preserve knowledge about traditional techniques.

The working museum also has an in-house production of linen tea towels and other products that are sold from the museum shop.
The museum production takes place outside opening hours and is handled by volunteers, as are all the functions at the museum.
All museum visitors are offered a guided tour, which includes a demonstration of a jacquard loom.

Until the mid 20th century, flax was widely grown professionally in Scandinavia, just as the fibres were also processed, spun and machine-woven. A large number of spinning mills also offered contract spinning to small-scale growers.

Finland still has linen weaving mills, as does Sweden, including Klässbols Linneväveri, which works with Hanne Vedel.

 

Linen is breathable and has natural anti-bacterial properties. It can absorb up to 20% of its own weight without feeling damp. It dries quickly and feels cool on hot days and warm on cool days.

With proper care and maintenance, linen is a highly robust material.

It is an excellent material for bed sheets, tablecloths, napkins and tea towels and is increasingly popular in clothing, for good reason.

In the upholstery workshop, the herringbone-woven webbing that is strapped across the seat frame is made of linen.

Linen production does not generate waste products. The longest fibres are used for upholstery and interior textiles and clothing, and the shorter, coarser fibres are used for sackcloth, stuffing (tow), paper and animal feed.

Linen grown in Europe does not require irrigation, and even conventionally grown flax requires hardly any fertilizer or pesticides.

About 80% of the linen fibre that is used for textile production throughout the world comes from France, Belgium and the Netherlands. The fields along the coast from Caen in France through Belgium to Amsterdam in the Netherlands have optimal climate conditions for flax growing.

On a smaller scale, flax is also grown in Ireland, the Baltic states, Russia and China.

High-quality European linen is used by weaver Karin Carlander, among others. She product develops textiles in her studio in Raadvad north of Copenhagen, which are then produced at a weaving mill in Finland.

From flax seed to linen yarn:

Naturally, the process varies in minor ways from small-scale to large-scale production and from then to now, but in essence, it remains unchanged.

The flax plant is an annual that is sown at the growing site from April to June and comes into bloom three to four months later. Once the seed pods begin to turn golden, it is time to harvest the crop.

Flax is harvested by shaking the plant hard and then pulling it out of the ground, roots and all.

After the plant has been harvested, it is dried, before the seeds are separated from the stalks.

In textile production, the stalks are the interesting bit. They now undergo retting.

Retting is a natural fermentation or decomposition process, which is stopped as soon as the binding compounds that keep the linen fibre attached to the stalk are broken down.

The two main retting methods are dew retting and water retting.

Dew retting takes place on the field, where the flax plant is laid out for four to eight weeks, depending on the humidity of the weather. During this time, the plants have to be turned over.

In water retting, the plants are fully submerged in water. Although water retting, too, is a natural process, water that has been used for retting is toxic to animals and fish. Water retting of flax takes one to two weeks.

After retting, the flax plants need to dry before the linen fibres can be separated from the hard stalks. This is done by first crushing (breaking) the stalks and then beating and scraping (scutching) them until the long smooth linen fibres can be separated from the wooden parts.

The last process the flax goes through before the linen fibres can be spun into yarn is called heckling.
Heckling involves ‘combing’ the scutched flax until the linen fibres are fully separated and smooth, and the coarse, short fibres are removed. Heckling is done using a board with multiple rows of sharp steel or iron teeth.
The fibres are passed through at least two heckles, one finer than the other.

The coarse, short fibres remaining in the heckle are traditionally known as heckling tow.

Now, the linen fibres are ready to be spun into yarn, either manually or by machine.

‘Foreningen Hørvævsmuseet på Krengerup’ (Krengerup Gods), er drevet af frivillig arbejdskraft og slog i 1995 dørene op til et arbejdende fabriksmuseum, udstillingslokale, skoletjeneste, café og butik.

Museet er baseret på maskiner og værktøj fra det sidste danske hørvæveri, Tommerup Hørvæveri på Fyn, som lukkede i 1969.

Hørvævsmuseet dyrker kun i meget lille omfang hør. Hør, som indgår i kurser, der afholdes for at demonstrere og vedligeholde viden om gamle teknikker.

Derimod har det arbejdende museum en egen produktion af blandt andet hørviskestykker, som kan købes i museumsbutikken.
Produktionen på Hørvævsmuseet foregår uden for åbningstiden og varetages, ligesom de øvrige funktioner på museet, af frivillige.
Alle museumsgæster får tilbudt en rundvisning, som blandt andet indebærer demonstration af en jacquardvæv.

Indtil midten af det 20. århundrede dyrkede man hør professionelt mange steder i Skandinavien, og ikke bare dyrkede man hør, man forarbejdede også fibrene, hvorefter man spandt og maskinvævede. På en lang række spinderier kunne man tillige som lille avler få lønspundet sine hørfibre.

I Finland maskinvæves der stadig, det samme gør sig gældende i Sverige, blandt andet på Klässbols Linneväveri, som samarbejder med Hanne Vedel.

Hør er åndbart og naturligt antibakterielt, et stykke hørtekstil kan absorbere 20% af sin egen vægt uden at føles fugtigt. Hør tørrer hurtigt, er svalt, når det er varmt, og varmt, når det er køligt.

Hør er, rigtigt behandlet, et meget robust materiale.

Hør er et fremragende materiale til sengetøj, duge, servietter og viskestykker, og har med god grund vundet indpas i garderoben.

På møbelpolsterværkstedet er de sildebensvævede gjorde, som spændes ud over sæderammen, fremstillet af hør.

Produktionen af hør efterlader ingen spildprodukter. De længste fibre anvendes til boligtekstiler og beklædning, og de grovere anvendes til sækkelærred, polstermateriale (blår), papirfremstilling og dyrefoder.

Hør, som dyrkes i Europa, kunstvandes ikke, selv når hør dyrkes konventionelt, anvendes stort set ikke gødning og plantebeskyttelsesmidler.

Omkring 80% af de hørfibre, der bruges i verdens tekstilindustri, kommer fra Frankrig, Belgien eller Holland. Markerne ud mod kysten fra Caen i Frankrig, gennem Belgien videre til Amsterdam i Holland har optimale klimatiske forhold til hørproduktion.

Der dyrkes også i mindre udstrækning hør i Irland, Baltikum og Rusland og Kina.

Den meget fine europæiske hør anvender blandt andre væver Karin Carlander. Hun produktudvikler brugstekstiler på sit værksted i Raadvad nord for København og producerer på et maskinvæveri i Finland.

Fra hørfrø til hørgarn:

En proces, der naturligvis på detaljeniveau er forskellig fra lille til stor produktion, fra datid til nutid, men som i grundprincipperne er den samme.

Hørplanten er etårig og sås direkte på voksestedet i april-juni og blomstrer 3-4 måneder senere.

Når frøkapslerne begynder at blive gyldne, er det tid at høste.

Hørren høstes ved at ruske planten, hvorved den trækkes op med rod.

Efter planten er høstet, tørres den, inden frøene skilles fra stænglerne.

I forhold til tekstilproduktion er det stænglerne, som er interessante. De skal gennem en rødning.

Rødning er en fermenteringsproces, en forrådnelse. Dog stoppes rødingen, så snart de limstoffer, som binder taven fast til strået, er nedbrudt.

Man kan rødne på land eller i vand.

Landrødning foregår på marken, hørplanten skal ligge 4-8 uger, afhængig af hvor fugtigt vejret er. Undervejs skal planterne vendes.

Vandrødning foregår, som navnet antyder, i vand. Vandrødning er, til trods for at den er naturlig, en giftig proces. Dyr må ikke drikke vand, der har været brugt til rødning, og man må ikke rødne i vand, hvor der går fisk. Vanrødning af hør klares på 1-2 uger.

Efter rødningen skal hørren igen tørre, inden taverne skal skilles fra den hårde stængel. Adskillelsen foregår ved, at stænglerne knuses (brydes), derefter (skættes) slås og skrabes på stænglerne, til de træagtige dele kan skilles fra de lange taver.

Den sidste proces, hørren skal igennem, inden taverne (hørfibrene) kan spindes til garn, hedder hegling.
At hegle er at ‘rede’ den skættede hør, til den bliver findelt og helt blank. Heglingen udskiller de grove og korte taver. Man hegler på et bræt med flere rækker spidse stål- eller jerntænder.
Taverne kommer gennem mindst to hegler af forskellig finhed. 

De grove og korte taver, som blev tilbage i heglen, blev kaldt hegleblår.

Nu er hørfibrene klar til at blive spundet til garn, manuelt eller maskinelt.

Karin Carlanders værkssted i Raasvad

Related stories

TERMINATION OR DEVELOPMENT?

From bookazine no. 2 about Århus Posementfabrik...

DRIFTSKONTORET

‘Have you heard of DRIFTSKONTORET [the Works Office]?’...

APPRENTICE BRICKLAYER

I am meeting Alice Elmerkjær at a building...

SEARCHING

In my search for a blue flax field,...

KIT COUTURE

About Kit Couture from bookazine no. 2...

ROLE MODELS

Role models was one of the topics that...

This website uses cookies

We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services.